The Logical reason must necessarily follow the preparation of the faculties and collect the material on which the logical reason works. Even the mind must have some development of the faculty of dealing with words, before it can deal successfully with ideas.
The Logical reason cannot proceed without premises. It either infers from facts to a conclusion or from previously formed conclusions to a fresh one or from one fact to another. As such, logical reason prefer to either induces, deduces or simply infers. Thus, always do think correctly from premises.
For instance: That one can ‘induce’ that the sun rises daily after a varying interval of darkness, as observation of facts. That one may ‘deduce’ in a particular case of smoke there is a fire behind. That one will ‘infer’ from the improbability of any other cause under the particular circumstances, like stroke of lighting or sparks of friction etc.
There are three elements necessary to correct reasoning, first the correctness of the facts or conclusion, secondly the completeness as well as accuracy of the data, thirdly the elimination of other possible or impossible conclusions from the same facts.
It is the Science of Logic which usually trains the logical reason. The experience of reasoning and its errors should be given to the mind, while the same should train to observe how these work for itself i.e. to proceed from example to the rule and from the rules to the formal science of the subject, not from the science to rule & from the rule to the example.
The encircle goes by making the mind interest itself in drawing inferences from the facts, then trace cause and effect, thereafter notice its successes and its failures, thereby address the incorrectness of the fact, drawing conclusions from insufficient facts, prejudice to consider other possible explanations or conclusions. In this way the mind can be trained to reason as correctly, while the fallibility of human logic will minimize the chances of error. Further, the study of formal logic will systematize the art perfectly.